What do you mean by a Program?
- A program is a set of instructions that are grouped together to accomplish a task or tasks.
- These instructions can be given to a computer.
- The instructions, called machine code or assembly code consist of things like reading and writing memory, arithmetic operations, and comparisons.
- These instructions sound simple, it is actually possible to solve a huge group problems with them.
- The individual instructions that the machine actually quite simple or low-level in computer parlance.
What do you mean by Programming?
- Computer Programming is the art of making a computer do what you want it (the computer) to do.
- At the very simplest level it consists of issuing a sequence of commands to a computer to achieve an objective
- Writing software, computer programs, is describing how to do something. In its simplest form, it is a lot like writing down the steps it takes to do something – a process.
- Programming will help you learn the importance of clarity of expression.
- A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks.
- “A programming language is a machine-readable artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that specify the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication.”
- Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax and semantics
Low Level Languages
- Machine Language
- Assembly Language
High Level languages
- Instructions look more like English and Math
- Generally result in multiple low level
- Commands, for a single high level statement.
– Used by early computers
– Executable by machines, almost incomprehensible to humans
– Programming in machine language is very tedious and prone to errors
– Mnemonics used for instruction codes and memory locations
– Not directly understandable by machine. They must be translated
– Easier for humans to use and still in use today.
- ADD X, Y, Reg1
- ADD Reg1, Z, Reg2
- STORE Reg2 SUM
High Level Programming Language
- Uses syntax resembling combination of mathematical notation and English
- Easy for humans to understand.
- Not understandable by machines, must be translated using a compiler or an interpreter.
- Programming tools such as integrated programming environment with a debugger are available to aid in programming process.